[ti:Make a Habit of Learning English] [by:www.houshang36.top] [00:00.00]更多听力请访问51VOA.COM [00:00.04]Since the beginning of the coronavirus crisis, [00:04.48]many people have had to change their habits, [00:08.84]or usual ways of doing things. [00:12.96]Some people who used to go to school now study at home. [00:18.76]Some of them have been trying to get in the habit [00:22.60]of learning and studying on their own. [00:26.36]How might habits connect with studying and learning? [00:30.56]Today's Education Tips will explore that very question. [00:35.92]Habits are regular ways of dealing with your environment. [00:41.04]You generally do not pay attention to them. [00:45.36]In the book Good Habits, Bad Habits, Dr. Wendy Wood [00:50.64]notes that "A habit turns the world around you [00:54.64]—your context—into a trigger to act." [00:58.64]Habits take many forms – eating, exercising, even studying. [01:05.32]You may not realize it, [01:07.52]but habits make up many of the actions that you do every day. [01:12.96]In the book Atomic Habits, James Clear describes [01:17.84]a four-step process by which habits are made. [01:23.04]These steps are cue, craving, response, and reward. [01:30.20]The cue tells your brain to begin a behavior. [01:34.64]The craving is what makes you want to do something. [01:39.24]The response is the actual habit that you perform. [01:44.28]The response, in turn, gives you a reward. [01:48.84]"Rewards are the end goal of every habit," Clear writes. [01:54.20]Consider this example. [01:56.52]Maybe you have the habit of often checking social media. [02:01.64]The cue might be a feeling of boredom [02:05.40]while you are near your computer or phone. [02:08.88]The craving could be a desire to stop that feeling. [02:13.80]The response is checking social media, [02:17.08]and the reward is seeing something interesting. [02:21.00]When that process is repeated many times, it becomes a habit. [02:28.52]Clear believes that to create a good habit, [02:32.04]you need to follow several steps. [02:35.20]You need to make your new habit obvious, [02:38.72]or easy to see or understand. [02:41.88]The habit should also be attractive, simple and satisfying. [02:48.20]Let's think about how you might develop an English study habit. [02:54.08]You should organize your surroundings in such a way [02:57.80]that the cues of your new habit are very obvious. [03:02.36]For example, if you want to get in the habit of studying English every day, [03:08.72]leave English books or notes in a very clear place. [03:13.64]To make your habit attractive, [03:16.16]Clear recommends joining a culture [03:19.40]where your new desired behavior is the normal behavior. [03:24.52]For example, you could join a group [03:27.76]of other English learners in online meetings. [03:31.80]To make your new habit easy, [03:34.36]you could decrease the number of steps you have to take [03:38.64]in order to study. [03:40.48]You could also try reducing the amount of time you study. [03:45.24]Clear suggests beginning your habits with limited, [03:49.48]shorter time periods – two minutes for example. [03:54.12]As you repeat the practice over time, you can go longer. [03:59.56]An important point to keep in mind [04:02.68]is that if you place too many demands on yourself, [04:07.44]you are more likely to give up on your new habit. [04:12.20]Finally, you need to make your habit satisfying. [04:16.32]You can give yourself a reward after completing your new habit. [04:21.40]For example, if you study English for 15 minutes, [04:26.32]you could reward yourself by listening to a song you like. [04:31.20]Or you could think about how much progress you have made [04:34.96]since you first started studying English. [04:39.20]Wood notes that your reward [04:41.56]should come right after you do your new habit. [04:45.32]"Rewards have to be experienced right after we do something [04:50.12]in order to build habit associations ... in memory," she writes. [04:55.84]Building new habits can take time. [04:58.84]You may have to repeat an action many times [05:02.16]before it becomes a habit. [05:04.56]But with time, careful planning [05:07.72]and continued practice, you can do it. [05:12.00]I'm John Russell. [05:13.92]更多听力请访问51VOA.COM www9778con