[ti:Australia Wildfires Investigation Calls for Climate Risk Assessment] [by:www.houshang36.top] [00:00.00]更多听力请访问51VOA.COM [00:00.04]Wildfires destroyed large parts of southeast Australia [00:05.80]during the second half of 2019 and early in 2020. [00:11.68]Late last week, Australian investigators released an official report on the fires. [00:20.12]The investigators for greater efforts [00:23.52]to predict the effects of climate change on the country. [00:29.40]The report noted that fire behavior was becoming more extreme. [00:36.56]The Royal Commission into National Natural Disaster Arrangements [00:42.84]began studying the fires in February. [00:47.44]The fire season was so destructive that it is now known as Black Summer. [00:53.76]The fires killed at least 33 people, [00:57.72]destroyed more than 3,000 homes and burned 19 million hectares. [01:05.32]Thousands of people were forced to leave affected areas. [01:11.40]The Royal Commission said the smoke that covered much of the country, [01:16.52]including major Australian cities, was partly to blame for hundreds of deaths. [01:24.92]The commission's 578-page report made 80 suggestions. [01:31.80]They include greater sharing of information across Australia [01:37.00]on climate and disaster risks. [01:41.28]The report said federal and state governments should make climate projections [01:47.52]and agree on trajectories and timelines for likely climate change. [01:54.96]It called on states to create fire maps that are shared nationally. [02:01.20]Without this cooperation, the report said, [02:04.96]it is "difficult to measure risk at a national scale." [02:10.76]These measures will "improve the ability to predict or estimate [02:15.84]the likelihood of extreme" wildfires, the report said. [02:21.60]Mark Howden is a professor [02:23.80]at the Australian National University's Climate Change Institute. [02:29.08]He said the fire risk in some areas was a result of both fuel loads and climate. [02:37.48]A fuel load is the amount of dead wood that can easily burn. [02:43.80]Climate models were "a guide to future change and risk, [02:48.40]but it's very clear across Australia that that change in risk is upward," Howden said. [02:57.24]"So, it's a question...how quickly and how much that fire danger increases." [03:04.56]Lawmakers in Australia's government have argued [03:08.20]against the effect of climate change on the fire emergency. [03:13.32]Some said the fires were set by arsonists. [03:17.68]The report also said there was no question [03:21.16]that more climate change is likely over the next 20 years. [03:26.28]It also said the number of floods and fires will increase. [03:32.36]Former New South Wales state Fire and Rescue Commissioner Greg Mullins [03:38.40]agreed with the report's look at climate change. [03:43.44]"The main point made in this report is that the Black Summer bushfires [03:48.68]would not have happened if not for the effects of climate change [03:53.20]and a warming planet," he said. [03:57.44]The report also recommended that Australia [04:00.84]develop its own aerial firefighting abilities [04:04.96]and send water bombers to where they are needed most. [04:09.64]The country now brings in firefighting airplanes [04:13.20]from the Northern Hemisphere during its fire season. [04:17.24]But, as a result of climate change, fire seasons [04:22.08]in the two hemispheres often happen at the same time now. [04:28.20]The report said that the prime minister should be given [04:31.64]new legal power to declare a state of emergency. [04:36.12]This, it said, would make it easier [04:39.20]for the federal government to act during the wildfire season. [04:45.24]I'm Susan Shand. 更多听力请访问51VOA.COM www9778con